The 23-year-old was edged into second by Jamaica’s Olympic champion Elaine Thompson.
Asher-Smith’s compatriot Laura Muir, 26, missed out on her second Diamond League win of the season, finishing second in the 1500m.
Meanwhile, Andrew Pozzi snatched second place in the 110m hurdles behind winner Sergey Shubenkov.
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Asher-Smith’s run was only beaten by a world-leading time from Thompson, who clocked 10.87 seconds at the Olympic Stadium, Aleia Hobb of the US third in 11.12.
European and Commonwealth champion Asher-Smith has two 200m Diamond League victories so far this season, winning in Doha and Stockholm, in a race where she beat Olympic gold medallist Thompson and world champion Dafne Schippers.
Muir ran a season’s best of three minutes 56.73 seconds but could not match her comfortable win in Stockholm in May, finishing behind world record holder Genzebe Dibaba.
Ethiopia’s Dibaba opened up a healthy lead on the final lap and, despite a strong finish, Muir was unable to chase her down in the final 200 metres.
Fellow Scot Eilish McColgan finished sixth in 4:02.29 and now has Olympic qualifying times over 1500m and 5,000m.
Pozzi, 27, who now trains in Italy, ran a season’s best 13.29 seconds to pip South Africa’s Antonio Alkana on the line.